Amartya Sen argumenta que o novo capitalismo não deve ser monolítico - como sugerem Nicolas Sarkozy, Tony Blair e Anagela Merket, no simpósio "Novo Mundo, Novo Capitalismo", ocorrido em Janeiro em Paris- mas possuir uma boa diversidade institucional para acomodar diferentes sistemas de valores e culturas que são eticamente aceitáveis. Amartya Sen ainda discute o ressurgimento do pensamento keynesiano e afirma que uma abordagem melhor para tratar do pós-crise encontra-se em Adam Smith e Arthur Cecil Pigou e não em Keynes:
"The revival of Keynes has much to contribute both to economic analysis and to policy, but the net has to be cast much wider. Even though Keynes is often seen as a kind of a "rebel" figure in contemporary economics, the fact is that he came close to being the guru of a new capitalism, who focused on trying to stabilize the fluctuations of the market economy (and then again with relatively little attention to the psychological causes of business fluctuations). Even though Smith and Pigou have the reputation of being rather conservative economists, many of the deep insights about the importance of nonmarket institutions and nonprofit values came from them, rather than from Keynes and his followers."
"The present economic crises do not, I would argue, call for a "new capitalism," but they do demand a new understanding of older ideas, such as those of Smith and, nearer our time, of Pigou, many of which have been sadly neglected. What is also needed is a clearheaded perception of how different institutions actually work, and of how a variety of organizations—from the market to the institutions of the state—can go beyond short-term solutions and contribute to producing a more decent economic world."