É a distância da Fronteira de Possibilidades de Produção (FPP) do país em questão da FPP internacional. No caso do Brasil, uns meros 300 a 400% do PIB.
ABSTRACT: What, if anything, can a country today do to catch-up with the industrial leaders? This paper reviews a theory of the evolution of international income levels and examines its predictions for catch-up. The main policy implication of this theory is that a country will catch-up to the industrial leaders if it eliminates policies that constrain the choice of technologies and work practices of its citizenry. Most often these policies exist to protect specialized factor suppliers and corporate interests. We examine the record of catch-up over the twentieth century and conclude that joining a free trade club is an effective way by which a country can eliminate these constraints.